Dry sliding friction and wear measurements were used to evaluate two implantation processes which increase the C concentration in Ti‐implanted steels. In the first process, Ti ions were implanted at a low energy (50 keV) in order to enhance the efficiency of vacuum carburization over what is achievable at higher energies (e.g., 190 keV). In the second, a dual implantation process, C ions were implanted into steels already implanted with Ti ions at high energy (190 keV). The first process produced a low friction (μ=0.3), scuff resistant surface at a fluence of 2×1017/cm2, 40% lower than the fluence required for similar behavior by 190‐keV implants. At fluences of 2×1017/cm2 each, the dual implantation produced a modest decrease in friction (μ=0.5), accompanied by stick slip, and some wear resistance compared to nonimplanted steel (μ=0.6). Auger spectroscopy and energy‐dispersive x‐ray analysis were used to analyze the surface composition produced by the two processes at fluences of 2×1017/cm2. The dual implanted surface had more Ti, more C, and a greater C/Ti ratio than the low‐energy implanted surface. The latter, however, had more C derived from vacuum carburization than the dual implanted surface. Both processes resulted in identical surface C concentrations. We concluded, therefore, that the improved tribological surface of Ti‐implanted steel results from vacuum carburization and not just the presence of excess C.