GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with indium tin oxide (ITO)/Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) composite oxide films serving as a transparent contact layer (TCL) were demonstrated. In this study, the wall-plug efficiency of LEDs (LED-III) with textured ITO/GZO composite TCL can be markedly improved by 200% and 45% of magnitude as compared to conventional LEDs with Ni/Au TCL(LED-II) and planar ITO/GZO TCL(LED-I), respectively. Compared to LED-II, this enhancement is due to the enhanced light extraction efficiency of ITO/GZO composite TCL with high transparency. Compared to LED-I, ZnO-based TCL with a higher refractive index (n ∼ 2.0) allows further enhancement of light extraction through the creation of a textured structure on transparent conductive oxide TCL deposited on the top surface of LEDs. In addition, the ITO/GZO composite TCL with a thickness of 550 nm is far larger than that of Ni/Au TCL with a thickness of approximately 15 nm. Therefore, in addition to the effect of high transparency, the thicker ITO/GZO TCL with low lateral resistance would also act as a current-spreading layer leading to an enhancement of light extraction.